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A short summary of this paper. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. Mazzei, B. Thickett, M. Wiesinger and M.

Schreiner eds. Methods of visualisation by Geert J J Verhoeven. Attempts in enzymatic degradation of the pigmentation produced by fungi isolated from Portuguese wall paintings by Alexandra Marco.

Development and trends in synchrotron studies of ancient and historical materials by mathieu thoury. Thin-sections of painting fragments: opportunities for combined synchrotron-based micro-spectroscopic techniques by Yoko Taniguchi.

Download Download PDF. Translate PDF. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. Left: Photograph of the original painting. Centre and Right: Hyperspectral images of the painting, showing the location of pigments of different types used by the artist.

The photograph of the original painting was taken by the author in the course of her investigations, and is not an official reproduction of the painting ART in the Australian War Memorial catalogue.

Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made ISBN ISSN: For information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at books.

Introduction 2 2. The principles of synchrotron radiation generation 4 3. Synchrotron radiation beamlines 24 4.

Detectors 37 5. Bertrand 1. Introduction 98 2. Current use of synchrotron imaging on ancient materials 99 3. Experimental requirements 4. Examples of imaging experiments 5. Cole, D. Paterson and D. Lau 1. Introduction 2. Types and sizes of particles and types of gases 3. Deposition mechanisms 4. Generation, transport and deposition on cultural objects exposed to the external environment 6. Generation, transport and deposition on cultural objects inside buildings 7.

Surface forms and degradation 8. Implications for design and maintenance strategies 9. Silver mirroring on silver gelatin glass plates 3. The principles of reflectance and hyperspectral imaging 3. Building a hyperspectral imaging system 4. Also, we have chosen authors both in their early and late careers. He has exten- sive experience in all aspects of cultural heritage research.

Inter alia, he was a member of the team responsible for the restoration of the Japanese Zero fighter at the Australian War Memorial, conducted research on prestigious medals such as the Victoria Cross and the Lusitania Medal, investigated the effect of self-organizing alkyl chain molecules for the protection of outdoor bronze sculptures, and studied the properties of lubricating oils necessary for the proper preservation of working vintage motor vehicles.

Research groups led by him have studied the mechanisms underlying the degradation of Australian aborig- inal bark paintings, and examined of the degradation of iron-gall inks on parchment, dyes and pigments in motion picture film, and dyes and pigments on painted surfaces. Creagh has also designed new equipment and devised new techniques of analysis. With Dr. He designed a number of its accessories, including an eight- position specimen-spinning stage.

For surface studies on air—liquid interfaces, he designed an X-ray interferometer for the Research School of Chemistry at the Australian National University. He has designed X-ray interferometers that are now finding application in the phase contrast imaging of small objects. More recently, he has designed the infrared beam- line for the Australian Synchrotron, Melbourne, Australia.

In continuation of the theme on synchrotron radiation, Loic Bertrand has elaborated, in Chapter 2, on synchrotron imaging for archaeology and art history, conservation, and palaeontology. Bertrand is the archaeology and cultural heritage officer at the new French synchrotron, Synchrotron Soleil Orme les Mesuriers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. He is charged with the task of raising the awareness of cultural heritage scientists to the use of synchrotron radiation for their research.

Manolis Pantos, he is responsible for the database that lists all the cultural heritage and archaeological publications involving the use of synchrotron radiation. In Chapter 2 he describes a number of his activities as well as the research of others. In the other chapters of this volume, widely different issues are addressed. Chapter 3 is authored by Ivan Cole and his associates Dr. David Paterson and Deborah Lau. This chap- ter is concerned with the holistic modelling of gas and aerosol deposition, and the degra- dation of cultural objects.

He has over 20 years experience of being involved in projects concerned with the preservation of cultural heritage. Ivan is an internationally recognized leader in the field of life cycle of materials and the development of protective coatings for metals.

He has taken lead roles in major projects in intelligent vehicle health monitoring for aerospace applications, the relation between building design and climate and component life, as well as the development of performance-based guid- ance standards and codes for durable buildings.

He has made a significant contribution in the application of building and material science to the conservation of cultural buildings and collections. Ivan is a member of international and national committees for research and standards in durable structures. In Chapter 4, Giovanna Di Pietro describes two different types of experiments she has undertaken in the study of the mechanisms underlying the degradation of photographic media.

In the first, she describes the degradation of old black-and-white plates. In the second, she outlines her attempts to understand the mechanisms by which the compara- tively modern motion picture film degrades. A significant part of this project involved trying to ascertain exactly which dyes were used by Kodak in their motion picture film from about onwards. The level of secrecy to which this information was protected was great. And, to this day, no information has officially been divulged by the company, although sufficient information has now been acquired to infer the formulations.

Her current project involves monitoring wall paintings using techniques derived from information technology. She is a consultant to museums and archives in the field of photographic preservation. An entirely new technique for the remote investigation of the pigments in paintings is presented by Maria Kubik in Chapter 5. This technique will significantly enhance the abil- ity of conservators to study the palette of pigments used by artists, check for repairs by others, and detect fraudulent paintings.

It complements the techniques described by Prof. She studied conservation in the Cultural Heritage Conservation Course at the University of Canberra, graduating with the degree of Master of Science, specializing in painting conservation. Scientists using conventional laboratory tech- niques are finding that the fundamental characteristics of synchrotron radiation — high brightness, low divergence, and highly linear polarization — can be used to give information not readily available in the laboratory context.

To achieve the best results, the research scientist must be able to discuss his or her research aims meaningfully with beam- line scientists.

And to be able to do this, the research scientist must have an understanding of the properties of synchrotron radiation, and also the various techniques that are available at synchrotrons but are unavailable in the laboratory. The chapter includes a discussion of synchrotron radiation and its properties, monochromators, detec- tors, and techniques such as infrared IR microscopy; soft X-ray spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction; micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis; X-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS , including extended X-ray absorption fine structure EXAFS and X-ray absorption near edge structure XANES , and X-ray tomography.

The underlying principles of these techniques are discussed here. Later in this book, authors will address these techniques in more detail.

Contents 1. The principles of synchrotron radiation generation 4 2. Introduction 4 2. Synchrotron radiation sources 7 2. Bending-magnet sources 7 2. Second- and third-generation synchrotrons 14 3. Synchrotron radiation beamlines 24 3.

General comments 24 3. Interfaces 30 3. Mirrors and capillaries 31 3. Monochromators 33 3. Crystal monochromators 33 3.

Creagh and D. Creagh 3. Multiple-reflection monochromators for use with laboratory and synchrotron radiation sources 35 3. Focussing optical elements 36 3. Polarization 37 4. Detectors 37 4. Ionization chambers 38 4. Proportional detectors 41 4.

Scintillation detectors 41 4. Solid state detectors 42 4. CCD array cameras 43 4. Imaging plates 43 4. Experimental hutches 43 5. Techniques 43 5. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction using imaging plates 45 5. Scintillation radiation detector systems 47 5. The Rietveld technique 51 5. XRR 54 5. GIXD 55 5. Microspectroscopy and microdiffraction 59 5.

Microdiffraction micro-XRD 63 5. XAS 63 5. X-ray absorption fine structure XAFS 69 5. Infrared IR techniques 73 5. Design requirements and constraints 74 5. Edge and bending-magnet radiation 84 5. The overall configuration of an IR beamline 84 5. Use of IR microscopy in cultural heritage studies 86 5. X-ray tomography 86 5. Spherical wave projection 87 5. Interferometer techniques 90 Acknowledgements 90 References 91 1. The growth in the number of peer- reviewed research articles by scientists who are using synchrotron radiation is shown in Fig.

The data has been taken from a comprehensive compilation of synchrotron arti- cles that is being made by Drs. The growth of peer-reviewed research publications produced by scientists in the fields of archaeology, archaeometry, and cultural heritage conservation since The strong growth in publications is mirrored in the increase in the number of workshops held at synchrotron radiation facilities on these topics.

The use of synchrotron by scientists is invariably triggered by the desire to achieve a better understanding of the objects and materials under investigation. And, to a good approximation, the technique chosen is the synchrotron radiation equivalent of a labora- tory technique. A laboratory instrument would have required a thousand times more material, and data collection would have taken a hundred times longer.

But, as the nature of the problem to be solved became more complex, there arose a need to find other ways to solve the problem — ways that were uniquely suited to the unique properties of synchrotron radiation.

The unique properties of synchrotron radiation have enabled the growth of techniques that would not have been feasible in the laboratory situation. As will be explained later, radiation is emitted whenever the electron beam is accelerated by the bending magnets that constrain the electron beam to its orbit.

Creagh The radiation is highly intense, highly collimated, and highly polarized in the horizontal plane. Also, the emitted radiation covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum: from the far infrared to the hard X region. This chapter will include a discussion on synchrotron radiation and its properties.

To devise experiments that will effectively harness the desirable characteristics of synchrotron radiation, it is important to have knowledge of the construction of synchrotron radiation beamlines and of the strengths and limitations of their photon delivery systems.

Descriptions will be given of typical beamlines and their monochromators, both of the mirror and single-crystal type, focussing elements, instruments such as diffractometers on which the samples are mounted, and the detectors that collect the scattered radiation.

The underlying principles of these techniques will be discussed in this chapter. Bertrand and Pantos will address these techniques in more detail later in this volume, and also in later volumes. Introduction It is not my intention, in this chapter, to give a full exposition of the principles of synchro- tron radiation.

That must be reserved for specialized textbooks. See, for example, Atwood , Duke , and Hoffman In this chapter, I shall attempt to present the essence of the subject with little recourse to mathematics. It is assumed that the reader is conversant with the basic notions of elec- tromagnetism.

The electromagnetic spectrum arising from the generation of synchrotron radiation ranges from the far infrared less than 0. The range of interaction is from interactions with atomic and molecular vibrations far infrared to crystal diffraction and atomic inner-shell fluores- cence effects X-rays. This expresses the relation in terms of the photon wave packet energy hu.

Synchrotron Radiation and its Use in Cultural Heritage Studies 5 It is convenient to compare the characteristics of common light sources with those of synchrotron radiation, although at this stage I have not discussed why synchrotron radia- tion has the properties it has. Table 1 sets out the characteristics of a pearl incandescent bulb, a fluorescent tube used as a replacement for the household incandescent bulb, a typi- cal laboratory laser, and a typical third-generation synchrotron radiation source.

It can be seen that the synchrotron radiation source consumes much more source power that the other photon sources. The photon spectra emitted by both the light bulbs are continuous spectra although the spectrum of the fluorescent bulb contains the line emission spectrum of the gas used in the bulb.

The laser emission is monochromatic, and usually has a small wavelength spread in the emitted line. The synchrotron radiation spectrum is continuous, but, in contrast to the light bulbs that emit in the visible region of the spectrum less than a decade in wavelength range , Table 1.

Comparison of the characteristics of common light sources pearl incandescent, bayonet socket fluorescent, common laboratory lasers with synchrotron radiation sources.

Creagh the useful wavelength range of emission is five decades from far infrared radiation to hard X-ray radiation. Directionality of emission is an important characteristic of photon sources.

Omnidirectional sources emit into all 4p steradians of solid angle. However, in experi- ments, the experimentalist is usually concerned with illuminating a particular part of their experiment. Let us consider that we wish to illuminate an object 1 mm in diameter, placed 10 m from the source of illumination. Without the addition of optical elements such as focussing mirrors, the fraction of the emission intensity of an omnidirectional source pass- ing through the aperture would be of the total emission.

Source size is important in two respects. The smaller the source size, the brighter the source is said to be. Also, the size source has an effect on the intensity of the beam at a distance from the source.

It is convenient here to introduce definitions related to photon transport that will be used throughout this chapter. Nothing has been said here about the wavelength of photon radiation. For continuous radiation, a slice of the spectrum is taken, usually 0. They are the best descriptors of source strength.

Coherence is related to the ability of radiation emitted from different parts of the source to have fixed passes in relation with one another. The question of coherence in the case of synchrotron radiation is not quite so straightforward: it depends on the method of production of the synchrotron radiation.

Of the radiation sources, only synchrotron radiation sources produce polarized radiation. Synchrotron Radiation and its Use in Cultural Heritage Studies 7 The current in the synchrotron has a time structure arising from the fact that the elec- trons are injected into the storage ring in bunches spaced from one another by a long time period, compared to the length of the bunch. Typically, an electron bunch may be 50 ps long, and the spacing between bunches may be 2.

This fact can be used in studying fast atomic and molecular reactions. Also, the beam intensity at any beamline will decrease as a function of time after injec- tion. Collisions with residual gas atoms and molecules in a high-vacuum system, which takes some of the electrons away from the electron trajectory, and radiative losses at the bending magnets, which cause a change in position of the electron beam, reduce the current in the ring.

This means that the radiated power decreases after injection occurs. Therefore, more electrons have to be injected to return the intensity to its original value at the end of a day. Or, alternatively, electrons are added to the storage ring at regular time intervals to maintain the storage ring current at its nominated value. Whatever the strategy taken, for accurate measurements, the incident beam intensity must be monitored.

Synchrotron radiation sources 2. Bending-magnet sources The earliest dedicated synchrotron radiation sources referred to as first-generation sources consisted of a circular vacuum chamber with a central radius R into which the electrons were injected at an energy Ee , and a large electromagnet that provided a uniform magnetic induction B chosen such that the injected electron beam returned to complete the circular trajectory.

Figure 2 shows schemati- cally the arrangement of a tabletop synchrotron. Some of this class of synchrotrons are still in operation. The Helios synchrotron manufactured by Oxford Instruments was installed initially in Singapore in around , and had a superconducting magnet to produce the magnetic induction.

The magnetic induction for this first-generation synchrotron radiation source is perpendicular to the plane of the electron orbit and must be constant over the whole area of the vacuum chamber. Under these conditions, each of the electrons in the beam experiences a constant force F , which produces acceleration a towards the centre of the circular orbit.

Creagh Fig. Schematic representation of a first-generation synchrotron radiation source, showing the circular electron orbit, photon radiation, and acceleration of the electrons. The magnetic induction is constant and directed into the plane of the paper.

Because an accelerated charge radiates electromagnetic radiation, each electron produces a dipole radiation field Fig. Photons are emitted uniformly over the hori- zontal plane, which includes the orbit. In this case, the electron is assumed to be travelling at a lesser velocity than the velocity of light. Note that this Doppler shift is strongly angle dependent. The ratio g is used as a measure of the directionality of the synchrotron radiation beam.

The electron is assumed to be travelling at a lower velocity than that of light. Creagh d e Fig. Synchrotron Radiation and its Use in Cultural Heritage Studies 11 The emission of radiation covers a wide energy range. The critical energy Ec of the synchrotron radiation source is defined as the median energy of the energy range: i. The expres- sions that relate to the production of the synchrotron radiation spectrum are complicated, and contain modified Bessel functions, the form of which determines the shape of the spectral distribution.

The modified Bessel function is shown graphically in Fig. Figure 3 e shows the spectral distribution emanating from a bending magnet at the Australian Synchrotron.

Thus far, I have not discussed the details of how electron beams are generated, acceler- ated to high energy, and stored. Figure 4 a is a plan of the Australian Synchrotron. It shows, commencing from the inner part of the plan, that electron bunches are generated in a linear accelerator, in which they are accelerated to an energy of MeV. The electron bunches are then directed into a booster synchrotron in which the current in the dipole magnets is increased, and RF energy is applied so as to increase the energy of the electron bunch to 3 GeV.

Figure 4 c shows a section of the booster synchrotron in its shielding tunnel. The box-like objects are dipole magnets surrounding the vacuum vessel in which the electron bunches circulate. Creagh a b Fig. These electrons then pass into a booster synchro- tron that accelerates the electron bunches to 3 GeV.

These are then diverted into the stor- age ring where the electron bunches circulate, producing radiation whenever the bunches are accelerated. Electron bunches are generated thermionically and accelerated by the linear accelerator to MeV. The electrons are accelerated by an applied radiofrequency field. As they gain energy, the field strength in the dipole magnets is increased to maintain the electrons in their orbit.

Creagh e Fig. This ring is not circular, but consists of straight sections connected to curved sections at which the bending magnets are situ- ated. Additional magnets, a magnetic quadrupole and a magnetic sextupole, are mounted at the entrance and exit ports of each dipole magnet to steer and focus the electron bunches. Figure 4 d shows the positioning of a dipole magnet in the storage ring.

Two dipole magnets exist between neighbouring straight sections; in this case, there are 14 pairs of dipole magnets. At the right of the picture, the vacuum chamber can be seen.

The dipole magnet is about to be rolled into position around the vacuum chamber. A closer view of the dipole magnet and its associated sextupole magnet is shown in Fig. A magnetic quadrupole is situated at the far end of the dipole magnet. Second- and third-generation synchrotrons Second-generation synchrotrons such as the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, were built for dedicated use by scientists, and consist of straight vacuum sections, at the ends of which are placed bending magnets. In the straight sections, insertion devices, i.

These periodic magnetic arrays are referred to as undulators if the radiation emitted by successive bends adds coherently, or as wigglers if the radiation emitted by successive bends adds incoherently. Wigglers, undulators, and their properties will be discussed in detail later. Third-generation synchrotrons are the adaptation of second-generation synchrotrons to produce small electron beam size and divergence, and the straight sections are optimized for the inclusion of insertion devices.

Figure 5 a shows schematically the organization of a modern synchrotron radiation facility, showing how the electron beam may be modified to produce radiation of different characteristics. Third-generation synchrotrons have their optics arranged so as to produce electron beams of small size, and the dimensions of the electron beam source are referred to as sx and sy for the beam sizes in the horizontal and the vertical directions, respectively. The amount of radiation collected in the horizontal plane by an experiment depends on the size of the exit apertures in the horizontal plane.

The emittance is a measure of the intrinsic source size of the synchrotron radiation storage ring. In insertion devices, the electrons travel through a periodic linear magnetic structure. This imposes a sinusoidal motion on the electron, and this is constrained to the horizontal plane.

This is illustrated schematically in Fig. This particular structure gives rise to undulator radiation. Wiggler radiation. The schematic diagram is for an undulator.

These are linear periodic magnetic arrays situated either inside or outside the storage ring vacuum vessel in which the radiation from the bends add together construc- tively to produce a coherent radiation pattern. Shown, as well, are the characteristics of an undulator chosen for use in the spectromicroscopy beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Creagh e i Fig. At the bottom are spectral brightness curves for bending-magnet sources with two different values of Ec, one a soft X-ray source and the other a hard X-ray source.

Above them are plots of the spectral brightness for wigglers mounted in straight sections of the two storage rings. Note that the radiation from the wigglers is similar in shape to the bending- magnet sources, but 2N times more intense, and shifted to higher energies. At the top are curves relating to the spectral brightness of undulators in the straight sections of a low- energy and a high-energy ring.

The dot indicates the peak intensity of radiation from and undulator at the Australian Synchrotron. Table 2. Machine and electron beam parameters for the Australian Synchrotron 0. Here, N is the number of magnetic periods. For a horizontal angle q, 0. As in the case of simple bending-magnet radiation, the direction of polarization changes as the y changes, but because the elliptical polarization from one half period combines with the elliptical polarization with the next half period which has the opposite sense , the resultant polarization remains linear.

Undulator radiation. Figure 5 b is a schematic representation of an undulator inser- tion device. Creagh f g Fig. E is the energy of the electron. Ec is the critical energy, defined as 0. There are four blocks of magnets in the arrays A1, A2, A3, and A4 for every undulator period. The directions of the magnetization within the structures are shown. By moving two opposing magnet arrays with respect to the other two, the field strengths of the components of the vertical and horizontal magnetic fields can be varied.

This changes the phase relations between the two impressed oscilla- tions, thereby changing the polarization of the electron beam. Creagh different, implying that the product luBo is different. K is greater than 1 for wigglers and less than 1 for undulators. Fn K is the sum of Bessel functions and is plotted in Fig. To summarize: undulators provide quasi-line spectra in which the lines have high brightness, relatively small breadth, and small angular divergence in the forward direction.

Linearly polarized radiation from an undulator passes through two monochromators, the first a Laue-type transmission monochromator, and then a double-crystal Bragg reflection monochromator. The radiation remains linearly polarized in the horizontal plane. On leaving the QWP, these wavefields combine to give circularly polarized radiation.

This can then be used to irradiate a sample, for example, a layer of self-organized alkyl chains in a lubricat- ing oil on a metal surface, to determine the orientation of the alkyl chains. Analysis of the resultant scattered radiation can be effected using another QWP to determine the amount, say, of vertical or horizontal polarization exists in the beam. Synchrotron Radiation and its Use in Cultural Heritage Studies 23 The position of the lines can be controlled by varying the gap between the poles of the magnet.

Comparison of spectral brightness of synchrotron radiation sources. Figure 5 e shows the comparative spectral brightness of the three different synchrotron radiation sources. Note that the radiation from the wigglers are similar in shape to the bending-magnet sources, but 2N times more intense, and shifted to higher energies.

At the top are curves relating to the spectral brightness of undulators in the straight sections of a low-energy and a high-energy ring.

Polarization of synchrotron radiation beams. The polarization of synchrotron radiation beams can be manipulated either at the source, or by the insertion of phase plates in the beamline. Polarization created at the source. Synchrotron radiation sources give rise to radiation that is linearly polarized in the plane of the orbit for bending-magnet, wiggler, and undu- lator sources.

This arises from the fact that the magnetic field directions in all of these cases in perpendicular to the plane of orbit. If, however, the source is viewed off the axis, changes of polarization are observed Fig.

Thus, for a particular photon energy, it is possible to see different admixtures of polarizations by changing the viewing angle. The intensity of the mixed polarized light is significantly lower than that of the on-axis linearly polarized light.

The ability to produce photon beams with a particular polarization state has been acquired with the invention of a new class of undulators. Apple II undulators are referred to as helical undulators because the electron beam trav- erses two orthogonal periodic magnetic fields, usually constructed from permanent magnets such as NdFeB or Sm2Co The directions of magnetization within the structures are shown.

Creagh polarization of the electron beam. Figure 5 h i—iv shows various polarization states that can be attained by varying the position of the moveable magnetic array. Polarization created by optical elements. Phase shifts can be induced in a monochro- matic X-ray beam by using reflections from single-crystal silicon crystals used in a Laue transmission configuration. In simple terms, the incoming radiation stimulates coupled wavefields having both parallel and perpendicular components in the crystal.

The degree of polarization is determined by the thickness, orientation, and reflection type , , , and so on see Giles et al. In Fig. Linearly polarized radiation from an undulator passes through two monochromators: the first, a Laue-type transmission monochromator, and then a double-crystal Bragg reflection monochromator. The radia- tion remains linearly polarized in the horizontal plane. This can then be used to irradiate a sample, for example, a layer of self-organized alkyl chains in lubricating oil on a metal surface, to determine the orientation of the alkyl chains.

Analysis of the result- ant scattered radiation can be effected using another QWP to determine the amount, say, of vertical or horizontal polarization that exists in the beam.

General comments In Section 2, the characteristics of synchrotron radiation were described. In what follows, the various elements that may comprise the photon delivery system for a particular experimental apparatus are described.

For these beamlines, the usual technique for isolating the high vacuum from the atmosphere, beryllium windows, cannot be employed, because the beryllium is opaque to the radiation required for the experiments.

There are many configurations of beamlines: they are usually tailored to meet the partic- ular needs of experimental scientists.

To commence with, however, a generic beamline that incorporates the elements used to produce the beam to be used in an experiment will be described. This is an X-ray beamline, and, as shown schematically in Fig. X-rays from the synchrotron radiation source pass through a beam-defining slit and impinge on a mirror. In practice, this mirror may be flat or concave upwards. The latter is chosen if a parallel beam is required. The beam then passes through a slit placed to minimize unwanted scattered radiation from the mirror and falls on a double-crystal silicon mono- chromator.

Using Bragg reflection, a particular photon energy wavelength can be selected by the first crystal from the broad spectrum reflected by the focussing mirror.

The Bragg reflected beam, however, may contain harmonics. We currently have three wards with three councillors in each one. Two Acre Village was the name given by Josiah Morris Holloway to a portion of land he purchased in that is now known as Cheltenham.

Note: In the past the area was home to more than 30 active landfill sites, these have been reaching the end of their life and are now being replaced with green spaces. The next Planning Committee meeting will be held on Wednesday 23 October at 7pm. Acknowledgment of the source must be provided. The Mentone Piazza is now officially open to the community, providing a new open space to enjoy in the heart of Mentone.

This spring, community members are encouraged to shop local in Mentone to support local businesses and enjoy all the changes that have been taking place over the last few months. Traffic improvements: Council has listened and responded to community concerns regarding the traffic conditions in Mentone, making a range of improvements to increase pedestrian safety and ease traffic congestion including:.

Read our story on the next page for more. Works are currently underway to transform G. Soppet Pavilion in Mentone Reserve. These works will be completed in two stages with works commencing in early and expected to be completed by late Plans for the enhanced pavilion include top quality facilities for male and female athletes that will serve our community for years to come while retaining and conserving the current historic grandstand.

When pruning occurs we will arrange for all prunings to be collected. We will undertake street tree pruning in your area at least 14 days, but no more than 60 days, prior to the planned day that pruning or removal is to occur. For information see kingston.

Investment in Mentone Council is continuing its investment in Mentone to support an active and healthy community through major investment in accessible open spaces and sporting facilities. Ms Reid commenced her role at Kingston on 26 August In she was named in the top 50 Public Sector Women in the state. Ms Reid said she was proud to accept the role of CEO and is excited to have joined the team at Kingston. The draft Chelsea Structure Plan will guide decision making and provide a long-term vision for the centre.

Hundreds of locals took part and their ideas were presented to the Community Panel, who were instrumental in forming the draft Structure Plan. Developing a Chelsea Structure Plan is a key priority for the City of Kingston and will provide a long-term vision for the centre. The draft Chelsea Structure Plan will give Council a blueprint for how the community would like to see Chelsea develop, which will help us with planning over the next 20 years.

Visit yourkingstonyoursay. Structure Plans provide detail regarding how existing important features of local communities such as shopping centres, community services and infrastructure, parks and open space, roads, transport connections and areas for housing and employment may evolve or transform over time.

They also provide us with the future direction on any planning zone and land use changes and help to identify the need for new or additional infrastructure to support increased housing and employment.

Keep informed on current and future consultations in the City of Kingston. Register today at yourkingstonyoursay. Council is seeking community input to ensure the park continues to meet the needs of the community now and into the future.

The new state-of-the-art facility will be built to ensure the club can continue to provide this vital community service to the tens of thousands of visitors who visit Mentone beach each summer. The initial concept plans have been developed to align with the Lifesaving Facility of the Future Development Guidelines, and hundreds of local residents attended a community information session to view the plans and have their say. Attendees of all ages were able to provide feedback via a range of interactive activities, earning a free snag, coffee and plant after completing five consultation stations.

The Mentone Lifesaving Club and Ice-bergers also had stands, promoting their services to the community. The draft strategy aims to identify ways Council and the community can reduce the impacts of urban heat in Kingston. Everyone is invited to a new community event in Clayton South this October! In the peak warmer months — from November 1 to March 31 — the hours dogs are allowed on our beaches is restricted.

There is however a hour dog off leash area available all year round at the northern end of Mentone beach. And for those who prefer to avoid dogs, there is hour dog-free beach at Mordialloc all year round. A map of the times and locations where dogs are allowed on the foreshore is available at kingston.

The heritage building, which has been empty for many years, will undergo major works to repair and restore it for community use. The former Masonic Hall is in a fantastic location in the centre of Kingston and on the trainline to make it more accessible for young people right across our community. Local young people will be able to access important information, support and services to help them navigate study, work, health issues and more.

Council and the Alliance for Gambling Reform are working to advocate for stronger measures to restrict pokies use within the City of Kingston. The Alliance has called on the Victorian Government to recognise gambling as a public health risk and introduce a number of urgent reforms.

Outlawing addictive features on poker machines that trick people into believing they are winning when they are actually losing money. In most areas dogs are prohibited on the beach between 10am and 7. Reduction of the number of poker machines allowed in each municipality. Details: kingston. This program includes more than activities and workshops which provide opportunities for older people to leave the house, pick up a new skill, have fun and meet others.

From the Seniors Fit Club and author talks to tips on de-cluttering, this festival caters to all levels of mobility and will provide enriching experiences and opportunities to develop new friendships. These are just a few of the many informative sessions which are aimed at empowering older residents. Bookings are essential for many activities. To find out more visit kingston. A Kingston Arts performance about two Australian family histories. Phone for more information. The grants will assist many not-for-profit groups and help them deliver a wide range of services, programs and special events to the community.

The —20 Community Grants Program attracted a total of grant applications, which includes 75 Partnership and Annual Grants applications. Council is proud to support the efforts of a number of community groups who make a significant difference to the lives of others in Kingston. Community safety month October is Community Safety Month.

Council is proud to partner with our emergency services to keep our community safe through the installation of CCTV, emergency markers and adequate lighting across Kingston. Victoria Police would like to remind the community how to reduce vehicle theft this October. You can also access one-way screws to help protect your vehicles against theft. So, you should ideally be contacting the embassy before applying for the visa, to ensure that you have all the documents required before applying.

Once in Indonesia, you need to get in touch with your agency again, who will help you schedule a visit to the Immigration office, where you have to go and give your biometrics. Before the 60 days expiry, the visa needs to be extended, which you can do it personally by visiting the immigration office. You can get the rest of the extensions, either by going to the immigration office every 30 days by yourself, or you can leave your passport with the agency, who will get the extensions done every month for you.

And get used to the relaxed pace of life in Gili Air , having Bintangs while enjoying the sea breeze kiss your face, as you relax by the beach on a beanbag, seeing the skies burn. This could be your views on a daily basis. View all blog articles ». Passport valid for at least six months at the date of entry 2. A copy of the main page of the passport 3. A copy of the page with the entry stamp in a country where you apply for a Visa 4. A completed visa form 5. Copy of ticket to Indonesia Some consulates may even ask for a return ticket out of Indonesia after 2 months — the initial duration of the Visa 6.

This could be what you call as home What happens with the visa once you are in Indonesia? Get on a flight and come to paradise.


4 hazel avenue highett free download


Highett really started to explode, as in the cases of a lot our Kingston suburbs, with the arrival of trains. People could then arrive in bunches instead of a person here or there on a horse or cart.

Highett started off slowly, as farming towns do, but once Highett station opened in the population began to boom. It took until for things to really start cooking in the area. In there were only 9 stores throughout the whole suburb, but by , there were stores. Southland opened in Today there are around businesses registered in the bustling suburb of Highett. Nobody knows exactly where Highett got its name, although there are two good guesses. In , there are records of a man working as a grazier and a drover in the area named John Highett.

Access Victorian Places. It would make sense to assume that Mr. Both, perhaps? Some places are named after one person or another but sometimes they can be named after whole families who are important in the area, so your guess is as good as mine! William Highett M. Image courtesy State Library of Victoria. Hall in 12 hours. Goal of Working Bee, The Herald Image courtesy of Trove. Placing a memorial plaque outside the Highett Library, Image courtesy the Leader Collection.

He was born in Dorset, England over years ago, in At 23 years old, his journey brought him to Tasmania where he acquired some land and became involved in banking. At 31 years old he shipped over to Melbourne and began work with the Union Bank. More ambitious yet, Highett got involved in the Separation movement to have Victoria and New South Wales be declared as two separate colonies. William Highett went on to become a local government councillor and a Member of the Upper house of Parliament.

He ended up owning land in Moorabbin Shire, part of which was named in his honour. It seems more and more likely William might be the man Highett is named for after all. He passed away at the age of 73 on the 29th November, Kingston Historical Website. Image courtesy Leader Collection. The Master of the Hounds. Melbourne Hunt Club c. Short cut” to Highett school , May The Argus Melbourne, Vic.

Another world record! The Argus. The Australasian. Boys dressed in a variety of military fancy dress costumes, Highett, c. Image courtesy Museums Victoria Collections. Image courtesy Kingston Collection. Gas Works. Nepean H’way, Highett. Peter Wille photographer. City of Kingston acknowledges the Kulin Nation as the custodians of the land on which the municipality is a part and pays respect to their Elders, past and present.

Here are your Highett quick facts: Highett is spread over two councils — the City of Kingston and the City of Bayside.

It was officially recognised as a suburb between Highett has an area of 3. The State electorate for Highett is the Sandringham District. Click on the tabs above to discover more about Highett! Name origins Nobody knows exactly where Highett got its name, although there are two good guesses. The first use of the name was Highetts Road which was also the name of the railway station when it opened in It was shorted to Highett in It was recognised as a suburb by Census Date Population 10, 10, Events Passengers on the first train threw pennies at onlookers in celebration of the occasion.

The name was changed to Highett on Monday 14 December, Aussie Heritage : Highett Railway Station. It is the second oldest club in Kingston. Diptheria was once a major cause of death in children. All of those warning signals used to be controlled by single person known as a signalman. There was a fault in the system at Wickham road railway in causing the train to collide with a car. Unfortunately, eight passengers in the car lost their lives.

The hall had many uses, including dances, balls, vauldeville and a cinema. Highett Library now stands where the hall used to be. Highett Football Club Website. One such moment took place on November 25, when two men were caught at Highett station following a burglary. The brave Constable Christopher Coe approached the men and he managed to shoot and kill one of the robbers. During this tussle, he was shot 4 times himself. He continued to fight until the other burglar fled the scene.

The factory closed at the end of the second world war in The first building was known as the Tin Shed. St Agnes Highett Website. On Friday December 13th there was an explosion at the gasworks. Gas Works Ablaze , December The Age. Retrieved from Trove. The school was demolished in to make way for a housing estate.

Renovated in the s, it reopened as Waves Leisure Centre. Waves Leisure Centre. Image courtesy City of Kingston. Access the Kingston Historical website. There was a Division of Building Research. More than 20, people have used the pool since it opened to the public on November Highett demolition and clean-up Project Website. It was named after a Mr. Williams who had planned to build an aerodrome a small airport on the site but he died before he could see it built. The factory was repurposed but thankfully never needed to be used as an air raid shelter.

The land the factory was on is now the Highett Shopping Centre, where the only planes you can buy are toys. Research continued untill September , when staff were relocated and the site was cleaned up for sale. The hall could seat people, and was used for film screenings, functions, dances, flower shows and church services. Highett Hall closed in It was knocked down in , and Highett Library now stands where the hall used to be.

Demolition of Highett Theatre, Courtesy Leader Collection. Sure enough, Highett had that covered too at the Highett Gasworks which was completed in June and extended in It supplied gas to 70 square miles and almost 30, customers. The last gas made here was in The area is now mainly a business park with only one remnant chimney left.


4 hazel avenue highett free download


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